Europa World: The Europa World Year Book online Routledge -- Taylor & Francis group
 
 

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Publisher: Juliet Love
Senior Editor, Statistics: Philip McIntyre
Senior Editor, Directory: Iain Frame
Regional Editors: Imogen Gladman, Cathy Hartley, Dominic Heaney, Christopher Matthews, Jackie West
International Organizations Editor: Helen Canton
Contributing Editors: Vera Browne, Simon Chapman, Catriona Holman, Susan Leckey, Katharine Murison, Jillian O’Brien, Gareth Vaughan, Gareth Wyn Jones
Editorial Assistant: Lucy Pritchard
Statistics Researchers: Mohd Khalid Ansari (Team Leader), Shruti Gopinath, Syed Zaki Mehdi (Senior Researchers), Akansha Gusain, Kawal Kumaria
Directory Editorial Researchers: Arijit Khasnobis (Team Manager), C. Sandhya (Team Leader), Birendra Pratap Nayak, Nitesh Kumar Singh, Surabhi Srivastava (Senior Editorial Researchers), Shreya Arora, Satabdi Chakraborty, Priyanka Chaurasia, Manmeet Kaur, Aditi Kapoor, Vikas Kumar, Megha Rawat, Padmja Singh, Payal Singhal
Biographical Editorial Researchers: Denize Rodricks (Team Leader), Shubha Banerjee (Deputy Team Leader), Saumya Bhasin, Meer Hussain, Vaishali Gahlot, Puja Kumari, Nitya Arora (Editorial Researchers)
Contributors: Christopher Bell, Rebecca Bomford, Katie Dawson, Lucy Dean, Driss Fatih, Marcin Kosienkowski, Catriona Marcham, Martin Pickering
Editorial Director: Paul Kelly

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Acknowledgements: Statistical Data

The editors gratefully acknowledge particular indebtedness for permission to reproduce material from the following sources: the United Nations’ statistical databases and Demographic Yearbook, Statistical Yearbook and Monthly Bulletin of Statistics; the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization’s Institute for Statistics database; the Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Programme; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations’ statistical database; the statistical databases of the World Health Organization; the statistical databases of the UNCTAD/WTO International Trade Centre; the International Labour Office’s statistical database; the World Bank’s statistical databases, especially the World Development Indicators database, and the World Development Report; the International Monetary Fund’s statistical database, International Financial Statistics and Government Finance Statistics Yearbook; the World Tourism Organization’s Tourism Highlights 2017 and Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, 2017 edition, UNWTO, Madrid (copyright UNWTO 92844/54/17); the US Geological Survey; the International Telecommunication Union; Lloyd's List; and The Military Balance 2018, a publication of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Arundel House, 6 Temple Place, London WC2R 2PG. Statistics Canada information is used with the permission of Statistics Canada. Users are forbidden to copy this material and/or redisseminate the data, in an original or modified form, for commercial purposes, without the expressed permission of Statistics Canada. Information on the availability of the wide range of data from Statistics Canada can be obtained from Statistics Canada’s Regional Offices, its website at www.statcan.gc.ca, and its toll-free access number &!sr;1-800-263-1136.

Health and Welfare: Sources and Definitions

Total fertility rate: Source WHO Statistical Information System (part of the Global Health Observatory). The number of children that would be born per woman, assuming no female mortality at child-bearing ages and the age-specific fertility rates of a specified country and reference period.
Under-5 mortality rate: Source WHO Statistical Information System. Defined by WHO as the probability of a child born in a specific year or period dying before the age of five, if subject to the age-specific mortality rates of that year or period.
HIV/AIDS: Source UNAIDS. Estimated percentage of adults aged 15 to 49 years living with HIV/AIDS. < indicates ‘fewer than’.
Health expenditure: Source: WHO Global Health Expenditure database. Covering the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health.
US $ per head (PPP): International dollar estimates at 2011. The sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population.
% of GDP: GDP levels for OECD countries follow the most recent UN System of National Accounts. For non-OECD countries a value was estimated by utilizing existing UN, IMF and World Bank data.
Public expenditure: Government health-related outlays plus expenditure by social schemes compulsorily affiliated with a sizeable share of the population, and extrabudgetary funds allocated to health services. Figures include grants or loans provided by international agencies and other national authorities.
Access to water and sanitation: Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene (JMP) (Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, 2017 Update and SDG Baselines). Defined in terms of the percentage of the population using improved facilities in terms of the type of technology and levels of service afforded. For water, this includes house connections, public standpipes, boreholes with handpumps, protected dug wells, protected spring and rainwater collection; allowance is also made for other locally defined technologies. Sanitation is defined to include connection to a sewer or septic tank system, pour-flush latrine, simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrine, again with allowance for acceptable local technologies. Access to water and sanitation does not imply that the level of service or quality of water is ‘adequate’ or ‘safe’.
Carbon dioxide emissions: Source World Bank, World Development Indicators database, citing the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (sponsored by the US Department of Energy). Emissions comprise those resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (including those produced during consumption of solid, liquid and gas fuels and from gas flaring) and from the manufacture of cement.
Human Development Index: Source: UNDP, Human Development Report (2016). A summary of human development measured by three basic dimensions: prospects for a long and healthy life, measured by life expectancy at birth; access to knowledge, measured by a combination of mean years of schooling for adults and expected years of schooling for children; and standard of living, measured by GNI per head (PPP US $). The index value obtained lies between zero and one. A value above 0.800 indicates very high human development, between 0.700 and 0.799 high human development, between 0.550 and 0.699 medium human development and below 0.550 low human development. A centralized data source for all three dimensions was not available for all countries. In some cases other data sources were used to calculate a substitute value; however, this was excluded from the ranking. Other countries, including non-UNDP members, were excluded from the HDI altogether. In total, 188 countries were ranked for 2015.

Europa World Plus contributors

Africa South of the Sahara
Central and South-Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia
The Far East and Australasia
The Middle East and North Africa
South America, Central America and the Caribbean
South Asia
The USA and Canada
Western Europe

Africa South of the Sahara

Alexandre Abreu. Researcher, Centre of African and Development Studies, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
J. A. Allan. Former Professor of Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
L. Berry. Former Professor of Geography, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
E. A. Boateng. Environmental consultant and educationalist.
Sir Mervyn Brown. Former British Ambassador to Madagascar. Member, Académie Malgache.
Richard Brown. Former Dean, School of African and Asian Studies, University of Sussex at Brighton, United Kingdom.
Anna Bruzzone. Doctoral student, Department of History, University of Warwick, United Kingdom.
Greg Cameron. Associate Professor of Political Science and Rural Studies, Dalhousie University, Canada.
Brett L. Carter. Fellow, Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law, and National Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, USA.
Marisé Castro. Researcher, Amnesty International, International Secretariat, London, United Kingdom.
Tony Chafer. Professor of Contemporary French Area Studies and Director of the Centre for European and International Studies, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Rose Chilton. Economist specializing in East Africa.
Christopher Clapham. Centre of African Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
John I. Clarke. Professor of Geography, University of Durham, United Kingdom.
Julian Cooke. Editor of the Anglo-Malagasy Society Newsletter.
Sylvia Croese. Post-doctoral Research Fellow, Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
Devon Curtis. Lecturer in Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Bjorn Dahlin van Wees. Economist specializing in sub-Saharan Africa.
Juan Fandos-Rius. Encyclopaedist and historian of the Central African Republic.
Marie Gibert. Visiting Fellow, Centre for European and International Studies Research, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Pierre Gourou. Late Professor of Geography, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, and Collège de France, Paris, France.
Stephen Harmon. Professor of History, Pittsburg State University, Kansas, USA.
R. J. Harrison Church. Late Professor of Geography, London School of Economics, United Kingdom.
Celeste Hicks. Journalist specializing in the Sahel region and former British Broadcasting Corporation correspondent in Chad and Mali.
David Hilling. Research adviser, University of Greenwich, United Kingdom.
A. MacGregor Hutcheson. Former Lecturer in Geography, Aberdeen College of Education, United Kingdom.
Abdourahmane Idrissa. Researcher, Society, Work and Development Institute, University of Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Michael Jennings. Senior Lecturer in International Development, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Warka Solomon Kahsay. Saint Francis Xavier University, Antogonish, Canada.
George Kay. Head of the Department of Geography and Recreation Studies, Staffordshire University, United Kingdom.
B. W. Langlands. Late Professor of Geography, Makerere University College, Kampala, Uganda.
I. M. Lewis. Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Robert E. Looney. International consultant specializing in economic development and Distinguished Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA.
Akin L. Mabogunje. Former Professor of Geography, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Hugh Macmillan. Research Associate, African Studies Centre, University of Oxford.
Giuseppe Maimone. Ph.D. in History and Institutions of Africa, CoSMICA (Center for Studies about Contemporary Islamic World and Africa), Department of Political and Social Sciences, University of Catania, Italy.
Albert Makochekanwa. Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Zoë Marriage. Reader in Development Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Paul Melly. Journalist specializing in francophone Africa and Associate Fellow of the Africa Programme at the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), United Kingdom.
Peter K. Mitchell. Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Centre of West African Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
W. T. W. Morgan. Former Senior Lecturer, Department of Geography, University of Durham, United Kingdom.
Katharine Murison. Former Editor of Africa South of the Sahara.
Quentin Outram. Senior Lecturer in Economics, Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
René Pélissier. Author specializing in contemporary Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking Africa.
Julia Ruppel. Researcher, Ph.D. in Peace Studies and International Development, University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
Christopher Saunders. Emeritus Professor, Department of Historical Studies, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
Gerhard Seibert. Researcher, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira (UNILAB), São Francisco do Conde, Brazil.
Max Siollun. Historian and author specializing in Nigeria’s political and military history.
Sishuwa Sishuwa. Lecturer, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zambia, Zambia.
Miles Smith-Morris. Writer specializing in developing countries.
Donald L. Sparks. Professor of International Economics, The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, and Lecturer in International Business and Law, Management Centre Innsbruck, Austria.
David Styan. Department of Politics, Birkbeck, University of London, United Kingdom.
Ian Taylor. Professor of International Relations, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
Virginia Thompson. Writer specializing in francophone Africa.
Jörg Wiegratz. Lecturer in Political Economy of Global Development, School of Politics and International Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Geoffrey J. Williams. Former Professor of Geography, University of Zambia.
Paul D. Williams. Associate Professor, Elliot School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Duncan Woodside. Journalist and analyst specializing in economics and conflict in the Great Lakes of Africa.
Ralph Young. Senior Lecturer, Department of Government, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.

Central and South-Eastern Europe

Othon Anastasakis. Director of South East European Studies, University of Oxford, and former Director of the European Studies Centre, St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Daunis Auers. Associate Professor of Comparative Politics, University of Latvia, Rīga, Latvia.
Will Bartlett. Senior research fellow, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Miroslav Beblavý. Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, Belgium.
Dimitar Bechev. Research fellow at the Center of Slavic, Eurasian and East European Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, and non-resident senior fellow at the Atlantic Council.
Florian Bieber. Director, Centre for Southeast European Studies, University of Graz, Austria.
Ioannis Bournakis. Senior lectuer in economics, University of Middlesex, United Kingdom.
Keith S. Brown. Watson Institute, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.
Eamonn Butler. Senior lecturer in Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Cathie Carmichael. Professor of European History, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom.
Terry Cox. Professor of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Nevenka Čučković. Senior Scientific Adviser, IRMO—Institute for Development and International Relations, Zagreb, Croatia.
David A. Dyker. Late emeritus Professor, University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
Lenka Filipová. Faculty of Economics, VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.
Tom Gallagher. Emeritus Professor, University of Bradford, United Kingdom.
Kęstutis Girnius. Institute of International Relations and Political Science, Vilnius University, Lithuania.
Christopher A. Hartwell. Associate Professor of Financial Systems Resilience, Bournemouth University, United Kingdom.
Karen Henderson. University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Marko Attila Hoare. Associate Professor, Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Ivaylo Iaydjiev. Political analyst, specializing in European affairs.
Andres Kasekamp. Professor and Chair. of Estonian Studies at the University of Tartu, Estonia.
Cvete Koneska. Political analyst specializing in Eastern European affairs.
David Lea. Political analyst specializing in European affairs.
Anita Prażmowska. Professor of International History, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Mariola Pytliková. Associate Professor, Economics Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (CERGE-EI), Prague, Czech Republic.
Andrew Ryder. Political and economic analyst, researcher and consultant on regional economic development, regional geography and sustainability; and reitred lecturer, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
Katarzyna Sidło. Political economist at the Center for Social and Economic Research, Warsaw, Poland.
Alan Smith. Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences, UCL, University of London, United Kingdom.
Enkeleida Tahiraj. Senior research fellow, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Marcus Tanner. Journalist and author.
Urmas Varblane. Professor of International Business, University of Tartu, Estonia.
Marcela Veselkova. Assistant Professor, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Valentina Vučković. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
Vuk Vuković. Zagreb School of Economics and Management, Zagreb, Croatia.
Gordon Wightman. University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Emilia Zankina. Associate Professor in Political Science, American University in Bulgaria, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia

Shirin Akiner. Research Associate, Near and Middle East Section, School of Languages, Cultures and Linguistics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, and Associate Fellow, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, United Kingdom.
Luca Anceschi. Senior Lecturer in Central Asia Studies, Department of Central and East European Studies, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
John Anderson. Professor and Deputy Head of School, School of International Relations and Centre for Russian, Soviet, Central and East European Studies, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom.
Anders Äslund. Resident Senior Fellow, Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center, Atlantic Council, Washington, DC, and Adjunct Professor, Center for Eurasian, Russian and East European Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
Kamil Całus. Senior Research Fellow, Department for Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova, Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich im. Marka Karpia (Marek Karp Centre for Eastern Studies), Warsaw, Poland.
Laure Delcour. Senior Research Fellow, Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques (IRIS—The French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs), Paris, France, and Visiting Professor, EU International Relations and Diplomacy Studies Department, College of Europe, Brugge (Bruges), Belgium.
Payam Foroughi. Adjunct Professor, Central Asian Institute and International and Comparative Politics Department, American University of Central Asia, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and Thesis Supervisor, OSCE Academy in Bishkek, Kyrzgystan.
Reuel R. Hanks. Professor in Department of Geography and Humphreys Chair in International Studies, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA, and Editor, Central Asian Studies.
Philip Hanson. Emeritus Professor at University of Birmingham and Associate Fellow of the Russia and Eurasia Programme, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, United Kingdom.
Edmund Herzig. Masoumeh and Fereydoon Soudavar Professor of Persian Studies and Fellow of Wadham College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Nikolai Holmov. Writer and consultant specializing in Ukrainian political, civil society, local governance and security affairs.
Michael Kaser. Emeritus Reader in Economics and Emeritus Fellow of St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Eleanor Knott. Political scientist and Assistant Professor in Qualitative Methodology, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of London, United Kingdom.
Galina Kolodzinskaia. Expert, Research Centre for Religious Studies in Kyrgyzstan, and Fellow Instructor, B. N. Yeltsin Kyrgyz-Russian State University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
Taras Kuzio. Research Associate, Centre for Political and Regional Studies, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Affairs, University of Alberta and University of Toronto, Canada, and Non-Resident Fellow, Center for Transatlantic Relations (CTR), School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Eric Lepisto. Anthropologist specializing in socio-political transformations in the successor states of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Elene Melikishvili. Doctoral Recipient from the Department of War Studies, King’s College London, University of London, United Kingdom.
Neil Melvin. Director of the Armed Conflict and Conflict Management Programme, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden.
Rasmus Nilsson. Teaching Fellow in Russian Foreign and Security Policy, UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Vladimer Papava. Professor of Economics, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Georgia, Senior Fellow, Georgian Foundation for Strategic and International Studies, Tbilisi, Georgia, and Senior Associate Fellow of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program Joint Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Andrew Ryder. Researcher and consultant on regional economic development, regional geography and sustainability.
Ann-Mari Sätre. Associate Professor of Economics, Senior Lecturer and Senior Researcher, Uppsala Centre for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Vahram Ter-Matevosyan. Assistant Professor, American University of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia, and Leading Researcher, Turkish Studies Department at the Institute of Oriental Studies, National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Yerevan, Armenia.
Michael Tokmazishvili. Senior researcher, Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE-Transcaucasus), Tbilisi, Georgia.
Christopher Tooke. Analyst of political risk specializing in the energy and extractive sectors of the Caspian Sea and Central Asian region.
Kai Wegerich. Institute of Geosciences and Geography, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

The Far East and Australasia

Bryant J. Allen. Visiting Fellow, State Society and Governance in Melanesia Program, School of International, Political and Strategic Studies, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Robert F. Ash. Professor, Department of Financial and Management Studies, and Professorial Fellow, SOAS China Institute, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom.
Dean Asziekielowicz. Lecturer, School of Arts. Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.
Frank Bongiorno. Professor, School of History, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Anne Booth. Emerita Professor of Economics, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom.
Kerry Brown. Director of the Lau China Institute and Professor of Chinese Studies, King’s College London, University of London, United Kingdom.
Ian Campbell. Former Professor, School of Social Sciences, University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
William Coleman. Reader, Research School of Economics, College of Business and Economics, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Robert Cribb. Professor, Asian History, Department of Political and Social Change, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Harvey Demaine. Former Associate Professor of Regional, Rural and Agricultural Development Planning, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
Jörn Dosch. Professor of International Relations and Development Co-operation, University of Rostock, Germany.
Steven Drakeley. Senior Lecturer, History and Asian Studies, School of Humanities and Communication Arts, Western Sydney University, Penrith, Australia.
Ronald Duncan. Emeritus Professor, Crawford School of Public Policy, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Nicholas Farrelly. Associate Dean (Development and Impact), College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and co-founder of New Mandala.
Dafydd Fell. Reader in Comparative Studies, with special reference to Taiwan, Department of Politics and International Studies, Director, Centre of Taiwan Studies, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom.
Stewart Firth. Research Fellow, Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Aidan Foster-Carter. Honorary Senior Research Fellow in Sociology and Modern Korea, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Michael Freeberne. Former Lecturer in Geography, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
Volker Grabowsky. Professor of Thai Studies, Head of Southeast Asia Department, Asia-Africa Institute, University of Hamburg, Germany.
Jeanine Graham. Former Senior Lecturer in History, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Lok Sang Ho. Professor of Economics, Centre for Public Policy Studies, Lingnan University, Hong Kong.
Tran Van Hoa. Professor and Director, Vietnam and East Asia Summit Research Program, Victoria University, Adjunct Professor, College of Business, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, and Fellow of the Asian Forum on Business Education, Thailand.
James E. Hoare. Former Research Analyst, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, United Kingdom.
Chan Kok Hoe. Lecturer, Department of Economics, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Kenneth E. Jackson. Former Director, Centre for Development Studies, University of Auckland, and Adjunct Research Professor, Auckland Institute of Studies, Auckland, New Zealand.
Trude Jacobsen. Professor in Asian History, Department of History, College of Arts and Liberal Sciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USA.
Wee Chian Koh. Associate Researcher, Centre for Strategic and Policy Studies, Brunei Darussalam.
Charles Krusekopf. Professor, School of Business, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
Michael Leach. Professor of Politics, Chair of Social Sciences Department, Swinburne Univeristy of Technology, Melbourne, Australia, and Co-founder of the Timor-Leste Studies Association.
Suiwah Leung. Honorary Associate Professor of Economics, Crawford School of Economics and Government, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
S. R. Joey Long. Associate Professor, Department of History, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Robert E. Looney. International Consultant specializing in economic development, and Distinguished Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
Stephen McCarthy. Senior Lecturer in Southeast Asian Politics, School of Government and International Relations and Griffith Asia Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
A. E. McQueen. Former Assistant General Manager, New Zealand Government Railways, New Zealand.
Anthony Milner. Professorial Fellow, University of Melbourne, Australia, Visiting Professor, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Emeritus Professor, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
N. J. Miners. Former Reader in Political Science, Department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Andrew C. Nahm. Professor Emeritus of History and Former Consultant to the Office of International Education and Programs, Western Michigan University, USA.
Li Narangoa. Professor of Pacific and Asian History, Director of Mongolia Institute, College of Asia and the Pacific, Australian National University, Australia.
Rene O. Ofreneo. Emeritus Professor, University of the Philippines, and former Dean, School of Labor and Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines, Philippines.
Naphon Phumma. Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Economics, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Thorn Pitidol. Lecturer in Economics, Faculty of Economics, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Christopher B. Roberts. Director of the National Asian Studies Centre, Faculty of Business, Government and Law, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.
Alan J. K. Sanders. Mongolist, and former Lecturer in Mongolian Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
John Sargent. Late Head of the Geography Department, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, United Kingdom.
John T. Sidel. Sir Patrick Gillam Professor of International and Comparative Politics, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Josef Silverstein. Former Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, USA.
Ross Steele. Former Principal Demographer, Department of Planning Transport and Infrastructure, Government of South Australia, and Adjunct Academic Staff, Applied Population Studies Program, School of the Environment, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
Robert Sutter. Professor of Practice of International Affairs, The Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
Andrew T. H. Tan. Associate Professor, Department of Security Studies and Criminology, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
James Tang. Dean of the School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, Singapore.
Alison Vicary. Lecturer in Economics, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
Hiroaki Richard Watanabe. Lecturer, School of East Asian Studies, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Michael Meow-Chung Yap. Associate Professor, Divisional Research Director (Business Economics and Quantitative Methods), Faculty of Social Sciences, Nottingham University Business School, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

The Middle East and North Africa

Ahmed Aghrout. Research Fellow, School of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences, University of Salford, UK.
Nida Alahmad. Lecturer in Politics and International Relations, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
Liam Anderson. Professor of Political Science, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA.
Benedetta Berti. Senior Advisor and Head of the Policy Planning Division of the Office of the Secretary-General, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Brussels, Belgium.
Dana Blander. Research Fellow and Director of Supplementary Studies, The Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, Israel.
Jad Chaaban. Associate Professor of Economics, American University of Beirut, Lebanon.
Simon Chapman. Former Editor of The Middle East and North Africa.
Charles Charalambous. Independent communications consultant and journalist; formerly financial correspondent for the Cyprus Mail.
Kristian Coates Ulrichsen. Fellow for the Middle East, Baker Institute for Public Policy, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.
Jill Crystal. Professor of Political Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.
Vincent Durac. Associate Professor, School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Ireland.
Mohammad Reza Farzanegan. Professor of Middle East Economics and Chair, Center for Near and Middle East Studies and Marburg Center for Institutional Economics, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
Courtney Freer. Research Officer, Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States, London School of Economics, UK.
Richard German. Writer and researcher on international political and economic affairs.
Cengiz Gunes. Associate Lecturer, Politics and International Studies Department, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
Mohammad Habibpour Fatideh. PhD candidate in Economics, Middle East Economics Department, Center for Near and Middle East Studies, Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany.
Nathir Haimoun. Research Assistant, Department of Economics, Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon.
Gareth Jenkins. Non-resident Senior Fellow with the Silk Road Studies Program, based in İstanbul, Turkey.
George Joffé. Visiting Professor, King’s College London, UK, Lecturer on the Middle East and North Africa, Department of Politics and International Studies, University of Cambridge, UK, and former deputy director of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House), London, UK.
Marc Jones. Lecturer in the History of the Gulf and the Arabian Peninsula, Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter, UK.
Robert Looney. Distinuguished Professor, Department of National Security Affairs, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
Philip McCrum. Analyst of the political and economic affairs of the Middle East, and previously Editorial Director, Continental Europe, Middle East and Africa, The Economist Group.
Ashraf Mishrif. Assistant Professor in International Political Economy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
Gerd Nonneman. Professor of International Politics and Gulf Studies, Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar, and Editor of the Journal of Arabian Studies (Routledge).
Nigel Parsons Senior Lecturer, Politics Programme, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Neil Partrick. Writer and consultant on the Gulf and the Wider Middle East.
J. E. Peterson. Historian and political analyst specializing in the contemporary Arabian Peninsula and Persian (Arabian) Gulf, and former historian of the Sultan’s Armed Forces of Oman.
David Roberts. Lecturer, King’s College London, UK, and former director of the Qatar office of the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies.
Adham Saouli. Senior Lecturer in International Relations and Middle East Politics, University of St Andrews, UK.
Charles Schmitz. Professor and Graduate Program Director, Department of Geography & Enviornmental Planning, Towson University, MD, USA.
Assaf Shapira. Researcher, Political Reform Program, Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, Israel.
Moin Siddiqi. Independent economist specializing in macroeconomic developments and the banking sector in the Middle East and Africa; also advises on trends in petroleum markets.
Katrin Sold. Research Fellow, Center for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, Phillips-University of Marburg, Germany.
Andreas Stergiou. Assistant Professor in Modern European History and Politics, Department of Economics, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
Ronald Bruce St John. Independent scholar specializing in the political economy of developing states.
Denis J. Sullivan. Professor of Political Science and Co-Director, Middle East Center, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA, and Director of the Boston Consortium for Arab Region Studies.
Elizabeth Taylor. Writer and researcher on international political and economic affairs.
Mehmet Uğur. Professor of Economics and Institutions, Department of International Business and Economics, University of Greenwich, London, UK.
Marc Valeri. Associate Professor in Political Economy of the Middle East and Director of the Centre for Gulf Studies, University of Exeter, UK.
Alice Verticelli. Researcher in Middle East Politics and Teaching Assistant in International Relations, Department of Political Science, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
Edward Wastnidge. Lecturer in Politics and INternational Studies, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK.
Eyal Zisser. Vice Rector, and Yona and Dina Ettinger Chair in Contemporary History of the Middle East, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Yahia Zoubir. Professor of International Studies and International Management, and Director of Research in Geopolitics, KEDGE Business School, Marseille, France.

South America, Central America and the Caribbean

Dr Eliane Araújo. Associate Professor at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, and Researcher at the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimiento Científico e Tecnológico, Brasí, Brazil.
Dr Elisangela Araújo. Associate Professor at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Charles Arthur. Freelance journalist specializing in Caribbean politics and economics.
Prof. Anna Ayuso. Senior Research Fellow at Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), Barcelona, Spain.
Dr Marc Becker. Professor of History, Latin American History, at Truman State University, Kirksville, MO, USA.
Dr Roland van den Bergh. Economist at Curconsult NV, Curaçao.
Prof. Jessica Byron. Director of the Institute of International Relations at the University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago.
Dr Peter Clegg. Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at the University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
Dr John Crabtree. Research Associate at the Latin American Centre at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Dr David Díaz Arias. Associate Professor of History and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of History at the University of Costa Rica.
Dr Robert Funk. Senior Associate, Americas Program, at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, USA.
Prof. Francisco E. González. Senior Associate Professor in International Political Economy Latin America at the School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, Washington, DC, USA.
Pablo González. Analyst at the Governance and Peacebuilding Cluster at the United Nations Development Programme’s Regional Centre for Latin America and the Caribbean, Panama.
Prof. Susanne Gratius. Professor of International Law at the Autonomous University of Madrid, Spain.
Dr Kristina Hinds. Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados.
Prof. Antoni Kapcia. Professor of Latin American History and Director of the Centre for Research on Cuba at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom.
Prof. Peter Lambert. Professor of Latin American Studies at the University of Bath, United Kingdom.
Dr Francesca Lessa. Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research Fellow at the Latin American Centre, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Prof. Robert E. Looney. Professor of National Security Affairs and Associate Chair of Instruction in the Department of National Security Affairs at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
Dr Troy Lorde. Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados.
Ivan Luzardo-Luna. Researcher specializing in Latin American economic affairs.
Dr Emily Morris. Honorary Research Associate in the Economic Development of Latin America and the Caribbean at University College London’s Institute of the Americas, United Kingdom.
Sir Keith Morris. Former British Ambassador to Colombia.
Prof. Francisco Panizza. Professor of Latin American and Comparative Politics at the London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
Juan Carlos Sarazúa. Postdoctoral scholar at the Centro Peninsular en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales, Autonomous University of Mexico, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico.
Prof. Mónica Serrano. Professor at the Centro de Estudios Internacionales, Colegio de México, Mexico.
Dr Ximena Sosa. Resident Director of the Loyola in Ecuador Program, Loyola University New Orleans, LA, USA.
Dr Ronny Viales-Hurtado. Professor of Economic History in the Graduate Programme of the University of Costa Rica.
Nicholas Watson. Director of Latin America Analysis at Teneo Intelligence, New York, USA.
Mark Wilson. Writer and researcher specializing in Caribbean affairs.
Dr Christopher Wylde. Associate Professor in International Relations at Richmond, the American International University in London, and Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Latin American Studies, University of London.

South Asia

Lok Raj Baral. Executive Chairman, Nepal Centre for Contemporary Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Rudra Chaudhuri. Senior Lecturer in South Asian Security and Strategic Studies, Department of War Studies and India Institute, King’s College, London, UK.
Shanthie Mariet D’Souza. Independent consultant, writer and analyst on political and security affairs, based in New Delhi, India.
Sir Martin Ewans. Late former Head of Chancery, British Embassy, Afghanistan, and writer on Afghanistan affairs, London, UK.
Nick J. Freeman. Independent economic development consultant.
Marian Gallenkamp. Senior Research Assistant, Department of Political Science, South Asia Institute, Heidelberg University, Germany.
Sumit Ganguly. Rabindranath Tagore Chair in Indian Cultures and Civilizations, and Distinguished Professor of Political Science, Department of Political Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
Richard Ghiasy. Researcher and Project Manager, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Sweden.
Michael Gillan. Senior Lecturer, UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Australia.
Antonio Giustozzi. Visiting Professor, Department of War Studies, King’s College London, UK.
Krishna Hachhethu. Professor of Political Science, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Raghbendra Jha. Executive Director, Australia South Asia Research Centre and Professor of Economics, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Pramod Kantha. Associate Professor and Director of the International Studies Program, Deaprtment of Political Science, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA.
S. I. Keethaponcalan. Department Chair, Conflict Analysis and Dispute Resolution, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD, USA.
Mushtaq H. Khan. Professor of Economics, SOAS University of London, UK.
Mukesh Khanal. Research Associate, School of Public Policy, University of Calgary, Canada.
Diego Maiorano Leverhulme Early Career Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK.
Iftikhar H. Malik. Professor of History, Bath Spa University, UK.
Peter Marsden. Writer and specialist on Afghanistan, London, UK.
Brandon J. Miliate. PhD candidate in Political Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
Ilhan Niaz. Associate Professor of History, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Harsh V. Pant. Director of Studies and Head of Strategic Studies Programme, Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi, India, and Professor of International Relations, Department of Defence Studies and India Institute, King’s College London, UK.
Geoffrey Parrinder. Late Emeritus Professor of the Comparative Study of Religions, University of London, UK.
Gareth Price. Senior Research Fellow, Asia Programme, Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs), London, UK.
Ali Riaz. Distinguished Professor, Department of Politics and Government, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA.
Tirthankar Roy. Professor in Economic History, Department of Economic History, London School of Economics, UK.
S. W. R. de A. Samarasinghe. Chairman and Executive Director, Global Vision, Kandy, Sri Lanka, and Adjunct Professor, Payson Center for International Development, Tulane University of Louisiana, New Orleans, LA, USA.
Ronojoy Sen. Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Institute of South Asian Studies, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Brian Shaw. Honorary Research Fellow, Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Clemens Spiess. Senior Project Manager, International Relations, America and Asia, Robert Bosch Stiftung, Stuttgart, Germany.
David Taylor. Associate Professor and Head of Educational Programmes, Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations, Aga Khan University, London, UK.
Louise Tillin. Senior Lecturer in Politics and Interim Director, India Institute, King’s College London, UK.
Surya Valliappan. Research Co-ordinator, Department of War Studies, King’s College London, UK.

The USA and Canada

Theodore R. Alter. Professor of Agricultural, Environmental and Regional Economics, and Co-Director of the Center for Economic and Community Development at the Pennsylvania State University, USA; Adjunct Research Fellow at the Australian Centre for Agriculture and Law, University of New England, Australia.
Edward Ashbee. Professor with Special Responsibilities, Department of International Relations, Government and Business at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
Chris W. Bonneau. Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Pittsburgh, USA, and Co-Editor, State Politics and Policy Quarterly.
Duane Bratt. Professor of Political Science and Chair, Department of Economics, Justice, and Policy Studies at Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada.
P. W. Daniels. Emeritus Professor, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
David Hastings Dunn. Professor of International Politics and Director of Internationalisation, Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
James W. Dunn. Emeritus Professor of Agricultural Economics at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Milton C. Hallberg. Late Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Economics at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Steve Hewitt. Senior Lecturer in American and Canadian Studies, Department of History at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Alexandra Homolar. Associate Professor of International Security at the University of Warwick, United Kingdom.
Dennis S. Ippolito. Eugene McElvaney Professor of Political Science and Chairman of the Department of Political Science at the Southern Methodist University, USA.
Taylor Jackson. Independent Researcher and former Senior Policy Analyst, Centre for Natural Resource Studies at the Fraser Institute, Canada.
John Kramer. Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Criminology at the Pennsylvania State University, USA.
Robert E. Looney. Distinguished Professor of Economies of the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, Energy Security and Economic Intelligence at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA, and specialist in issues relating to international energy security and economic development.
Mark J. L. McClelland. Chief of Staff to John Glen MP, political risk consultant; former Head of Research and Political Risk, Dods Group PLC, United Kingdom.
Trevor McCrisken. Associate Professor in Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick, United Kingdom.
David McKay. Emeritus Professor of Government at the University of Essex, United Kingdom.
Sandy Markwick. Network Director, Winmark Ltd; Writer and researcher specializing in North American and Latin American affairs.
Geoffrey Mercer. Former Reader in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
Alexander Moens. Professor of Political Science at Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
Gillian Peele. Emeritus Professor in Politics at Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
Joël Plouffe. Fellow, Canadian Global Affairs Institute, Calgary, Canada, and Managing Editor, Arctic Yearbook.
Heather Marie Rice. Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania, USA.
David Robertson. Late Emeritus Professor in the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
C. Michael Wernerheim. Professor of Economics at Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John’s, Canada.

Western Europe

Reem Ahmed. Researcher, Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy, University of Hamburg, Germany.
Annette Bongardt. Visiting Senior Fellow in European Political Economy, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom, and a member of CICP, University of Évora, Portugal.
Lino Briguglio. Professor of Economics, and Director, Islands and Small States Institute, University of Malta, Malta.
Giovanni Caggiano. Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
Alexander Caviedes. Director, Academic Advisement and Information Center, Farmingdale State College, State University of New York, USA.
Günther K. Chaloupek. Former Director of Economic Policy Section, Austrian Chamber of Labour, Vienna, Austria.
Jacob Christensen. Lecturer, Social Work and Administration, University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark.
Clive H. Church. Emeritus Professor of European Studies, University of Kent, United Kingdom.
John Coakley. Professor, School of History, Anthropology, Philosophy and Politics, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom, and Fellow of the Geary Institute Institute for Public Policy, University College Dublin, Ireland.
Andrew Cottey. Senior Lecturer and Jean Monnet Chair in European Political Integration, Department of Government, University College Cork, Ireland.
Xavier Cuadras Morató. Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
Elena Danescu. Research Scientist, Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
Lei Delsen. Associate Professor of Socio-Economic Policy, Institute of Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
Lothar Funk. Professor of Economics and International Economic Relations, University of Applied Sciences, Düsseldorf, Germany, and Fellow, Cologne Institute for Economic Research, Germany, and Visiting Fellow, Institute for German Studies, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Richard Gillespie. Professor of Politics, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Rögnvaldur Hannesson. Professor Emeritus, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
Lauri Kajanoja. Adviser to the Board, Bank of Finland, Finland.
Sonja Kmec. Associate Professor, Institute for History, Research Unit IPSE, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
Andrew Knapp. Emeritus Professor of French Politics and Contemporary History, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
Mikko Kuisma. Research Fellow in Comparative Public Policy, University of Tübingen, Germany.
Mart Kuldkepp. Associate Professor of Scandinavian History and Politics, Department of Scandinavian Studies/European Social and Political Studies, University College London, United Kingdom.
David Lea. Writer and analyst on European political and economic affairs.
Stewart Lloyd-Jones. ISCTE-IUL—Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal, and Director of the Contemporary Portuguese History Research Centre.
Robert E. Looney. International consultant specializing in economic development and Distinguished Professor, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, USA.
Kurt Richard Luther. Professor of Comparative Politics, Keele University, United Kingdom, and Tongji University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
Lars Magnusson. Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, and Professor in Economic History, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Susan Milner. Reader in European Politics, Department of Politics, Languages and International Studies, University of Bath, United Kingdom.
Tommy Möller. Professor of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
Anthony Mughan. Professor of Political Science, and Director, International Studies, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
James L. Newell. Co-Editor of Contemporary Italian Politics, Routledge, United Kingdom.
Katrín Ólafsdóttir. Assistant Professor, School of Business, Reykjavík University, Iceland.
Stefanía Óskarsdóttir. Associate Professor, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
William E. Paterson. Honorary Professor of German and European German Politics, Aston Centre for Europe, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Teun Pauwels. Policy analyst for the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training, and scientific collaborator at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
Godfrey A. Pirotta. Professor of Government and Policy Studies, and Director, Institute of Public Administration and Management, University of Malta, Malta.
Daniela Pisoiu. Senior Researcher, Austrian Institute for International Affairs, Vienna, Austria.
Christian Schweiger. Visiting Professor and Chair, Comparative European Governance Systems, Institute for Political Science, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany.
Esther-Mirjam Sent. Professor of Economic Theory and Policy, and Vice-Dean of Education, Institute for Management Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands, and member of the Netherlands Senate.
Julie Smith. Director, European Centre, POLIS Department, Cambridge University, and Fellow of Robinson College, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and member of the House of Lords.
Martin Smith. Professor of Politics, University of York, United Kingdom.
Tobias Straumann. Associate Professor of History, University of Zurich, and lecturer in the Faculty of Economics, University of Basel, Switzerland.
Stephen Syrett. Professor of Local Economic Development, Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research, Middlesex University, United Kingdom.
Francisco Torres. Visiting Senior Fellow in European Political Economy, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science, and PEFM Associate, St Antony’s College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, and Visiting Professor at Católica Lisbon School of Business and Economics, Portugal.
Steven B. Wolinetz. Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.

 


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