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Welcome to Europa World Plus

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Europa World Plus is the online version of the Europa World Year Book and the nine-volume Regional Surveys of the World series.

First published in 1926, the Europa World Year Book is renowned as one of the world's leading reference works, covering political and economic information in more than 250 countries and territories, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. The Europa Regional Surveys of the World offer in-depth, expert analysis at regional, sub-regional and country level.

Recent elections

Belarus, 12 and 17 November 2019
Spain, 10 November 2019
Mauritius, 7 November 2019
Argentina, 27 October 2019
Uruguay, 27 October 2019
Botswana, 23 October 2019
Bolivia, 20 October 2019
Poland, 13 October 2019

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Click for detailThe Argentine Republic occupies almost the whole of South America south of the Tropic of Capricorn and east of the Andes. Throughout the 20th century government generally alternated between military and civilian rule. The so-called ‘dirty war’ between the military regime and its opponents in 1976–83 ... (MORE)

Recent Events

18 November 2019 Sri Lanka

Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, of the Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna (Sri Lanka People’s Front), was sworn into office as President. This followed his victory at the presidential election held on 16 November 2019, at which he secured 52.3% of the valid votes cast. The United National Party’s Sajith Premadasa was placed second, with 42.0% of the vote. The leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (People’s Liberation Front), Anura Kumara Dissanyaka, took 3.2% of the vote, while none of the remaining 32 candidates garnered more than 1%. Voter turnout was recorded at 83.7%. Rajapaksa’s election was the subject of some controversy, owing to his tenure as Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Defence in 2005–15 under the presidency of his elder brother, Mahinda Rajapaksa, and his role in a 2009 military operation to end the 23-year insurgency by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (a militant separatist group widely referred to as the Tamil Tigers).

10 November 2019 Bolivia

President Evo Morales stepped down from office following the release of a report by the Organization of American States (OAS) that cited widespread irregularities in the presidential election of 20 October. Morales had won 47.1% of the final tally, over 10 percentage points more than his nearest opponent, former head of state Carlos Mesa, thereby obviating the need for a second round ballot. However, earlier releases from the Tribunal Supremo Electoral had given a much closer result. This, and the suspension for 24 hours of vote count updates, had prompted widespread popular protests. After weeks of unrest, and in response to the OAS report, Morales announced that fresh elections would be held and that, following a request from the military, he was resigning in order to restore stability. He called his departure a ‘coup’, and sought asylum in Mexico. Amid ongoing clashes between supporters and opponents of Morales, the Senate Vice-President Jeanine Añez declared she was assuming the presidency in the interim.

10 November 2019 Spain

Early legislative elections were held after the Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE—Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party) was unable to form a viable coalition following elections held in April 2019. According to preliminary results, the PSOE under Pedro Sánchez (who had been Prime Minister since mid-2018), suffered slight losses, securing 120 seats in the 350-member legislature, and thus failing once again to secure a majority. The Partido Popular (Popular Party) increased its tally from 66 seats to 88, while far-right, nationalist party VOX España came third with 52 seats, up from 24 seats at the previous election. Left-wing Unidas Podemos won 35 seats (a loss of seven seats) and centrist Ciudadanos just 10 (down from 57 seats won in April). A newly established party, Más País, formed by former Podemos members and allies, secured three seats.

4 November 2019 Romania

Ludovic Orban, the leader of the Partidul Naţional Liberal (National Liberal Party), took office as the country’s new Prime Minister, after his appointment received parliamentary approval. The previous Government, led by Viorica Dăncilă of the Partidul Social Democrat (Social Democratic Party), had been removed from office by a legislative motion of no confidence in October. Orban was the fourth Prime Minister to take office in Romania since legislative elections last took place in December 2016.

29 October 2019 United Kingdom

Boris Johnson, who had taken over as Prime Minister from Theresa May in July, stating that the UK would leave the European Union (EU) on 31 October with or without a deal, secured agreement on the calling of an early general election, after Parliament refused to pass an amended EU withdrawal agreement in time for a 31 October Brexit. The election was scheduled for 12 December, just over two years after an early general election held in June 2017. The EU had earlier agreed to a new extension to the UK’s exit date, to 31 January 2020 (the UK had originally intended to leave on 29 March 2019). Johnson had been obliged to request an extension by Parliament, which passed legislation in September 2019 to avoid a no-deal Brexit.

27 October 2019 Argentina

According to preliminary results from the electoral commission after 97% of the votes had been counted, the centre-left Peronist candidate, Alberto Fernández, of the Frente de Todos coalition, was the winner of the presidential election. Fernández, whose running mate was former President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, won 48.1% of the votes cast, ahead of incumbent right-wing head of state Mauricio Macri, who garnered only 40.4% of the ballot. Voters cited economic concerns as the main electoral issue: the economy had worsened under Macri’s rule. Fernández’s lead obviated the need for a second round ballot. The new President was scheduled to assume office on 10 December 2019.

27 October 2019 Uruguay

No candidate won a majority of votes in the presidential election: Daniel Martínez, of the ruling left-wing Frente Amplio, failed to secure the necessary 50% plus of the ballot, attracting 39.2% of the valid votes cast, according to official preliminary results. His nearest rival, Luis Lacalle Pou of the Partido Nacional (Blancos), garnered 28.6% of the ballot, while Ernesto Talvi, representing the other traditional party, the Partido Colorado, won only 12.3% of the votes. A second round ballot between the two leading candidates was scheduled to be held on 24 November. Talvi and the fourth-placed candidate, Guido Manini Ríos of the Partido Cabildo Abierto, both indicated their support for Lacalle Pou in the run-off vote, in a bid to prevent the Frente Amplio, which had held the presidency since 2004, from securing a further term in power.

27 October 2019 Italy

A new Government was sworn in comprising the anti-establishment MoVimento 5 Stelle (M5S—Five Star Movement), the Partito Democratico—PD and independents, following the collapse of the previous coalition of the M5S, the far-right, anti-immigration Lega (League) and independents. Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte, an independent, had tendered the Government’s resignation in late August, blaming the political crisis on Lega leader and Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini, who had announced the end of the coalition earlier that month and demanded a general election, in a move widely interpreted as an attempt to capitalize on the Lega’s growing popularity in opinion polls. Instead, the M5S and the PD agreed to form a Government under Conte, with former Deputy Prime Minister and M5S leader Luigi Di Maio as Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Co-operation. The new administration would need to be confirmed by both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.


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