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Europa World Plus is the online version of the Europa World Year Book and the nine-volume Regional Surveys of the World series.

First published in 1926, the Europa World Year Book is renowned as one of the world's leading reference works, covering political and economic information in more than 250 countries and territories, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe. The Europa Regional Surveys of the World offer in-depth, expert analysis at regional, sub-regional and country level.

Subscribers may download archival content from the Europa World Year Book.

Recent elections

Sao Tome and Principe, 17 July 2016
Japan, 10 July 2016
Australia, 2 July 2016
Mongolia, 29 June 2016
Spain, 26 June 2016
Iceland, 25 June 2016
Saint Lucia, 6 June 2016
Peru, 5 June 2016
Austria, 22 May 2016

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Click for detailThe Argentine Republic occupies almost the whole of South America south of the Tropic of Capricorn and east of the Andes. Throughout the 20th century government generally alternated between military and civilian rule. The so-called ‘dirty war’ between the military regime and its opponents in 1976–83 ... (MORE)

Recent Events

15 July 2016 Turkey

Elements within the Turkish armed forces initiated a coup against the Government. Late on 15 July, soldiers occupied key transport, security and communications facilities in the capital, Ankara, and in İstanbul, while military helicopters and aircraft attacked state and security institutions, including the parliament building and the headquarters of the intelligence service. The Chief of General Staff, Gen. Hulusi Akar, was detained by those involved, but later freed by pro-Government security forces. A television channel operated by the state broadcaster, TRT, was made to broadcast live a statement that declared the coup’s aim as restoring ‘the constitutional order, democracy, human rights and freedoms’ in Turkey. The President, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan—who had been on vacation in the south of the country—and the Prime Minister, Binali Yıldırım, denied that the Government had been removed from power, and exhorted their supporters to defy a curfew imposed by the coup organizers and to protest publically against the attempt. In the early hours of 16 July, President Erdoğan returned to Atatürk international airport in İstanbul, where troops had earlier been forced to retreat by a large crowd of Government supporters and by the police (which remained loyal to the Government). Shortly after his return, Erdoğan gave a press conference, denouncing those behind the attempted coup and again appealing for his supporters to take to the streets in protest. Meanwhile, it appeared that the police had begun to arrest soldiers who were involved, and that the commanders of the various armed forces had denounced the plot. Despite ongoing clashes in Ankara, by the morning of 16 July order appeared to have been restored. The office of the President later stated that some 265 people had been killed during the overnight clashes. In the following two days more than 6,000 people were arrested on suspicion of involvement in the failed coup, including senior members of both the armed forces and the judiciary.

14 July 2016 France

Some 84 people were killed and many injured in an apparent Islamist terrorist attack in Nice, when a lorry was driven into crowds celebrating the 14 July national holiday. The driver, who was allegedly armed, was shot and killed by police. President François Hollande immediately extended the state of emergency in France (in place since terrorist attacks carried out in Paris in November 2015) by a further three months.

13 July 2016 United Kingdom

Theresa May was asked to form a Government following Prime Minister David Cameron’s resignation. Cameron had originally announced, after a referendum held on 23 June (at which 51.9% of voters supported a British exit from the European Union), that he would step down from office by October. However, after May’s last remaining opponent in the ensuing contest for the leadership of the Conservative Party withdrew on 11 July, May was left as the only candidate for the party leadership and thus the premiership. May, who had advocated that the UK remain in the EU, appointed several campaigners for a British exit to major ministerial positions, including Boris Johnson as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs and David Davis to a newly created post, Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union. Among other changes George Osborne was replaced as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Philip Hammond, Elizabeth Truss succeeded Michael Gove as Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice, and Amber Rudd took May’s former post as Secretary of State for the Home Department.

10 July 2016 Australia

The Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull declared the victory of the ruling Liberal-National Coalition at the closely contested federal election held on 2 July, while the leader of the opposition Australian Labor Party, Bill Shorten, conceded defeat. The double dissolution election (in which the full Senate is dissolved and requires re-election) took place following the Senate’’s rejection of industrial relations legislation passed by the House of Representatives, including a bill to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission, which had been abolished in 2012. The election proved to be extremely close, with the procedure for verifying votes slowing the announcement of full results.

10 July 2016 Japan

The Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s ruling coalition won a decisive victory in a partial election to the upper chamber, the House of Councillors, where one-half of the seats are contested every three years. Abe’s Liberal Democratic Party won 55 of the 121 seats up for election (bringing its total representation in the chamber to 120 seats) and its junior coalition partner Komeito won 14 seats (bringing its total seats to 25), while the opposition Democratic Party won 32 seats (bringing its representation to 49 seats). Abe’s campaign focused on his economic record and policies, but potential constitutional reform, notably of the article renouncing war as a means of settling international disputes, was also regarded as an issue. With some smaller parties and independents, the election result gives Abe, who already presides over a two-thirds majority in the lower chamber, similar control of the upper chamber, although there is no current consensus among the parties about constitutional change. The election was the first since the voting age was lowered from 20 years to 18.

03 July 2016 Syria

President Bashar al-Assad issued a decree appointing a new Council of Ministers. Imad Khamis, who had served as Minister of Electricity in the outgoing administration, was appointed as Prime Minister. Gen. Fahd Jassem al-Freij replaced Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji as Deputy Prime Minister, while retaining the post of Minister of Defence. Hussein Makhlouf succeeded Ghalawanji as Minister of Local Administration. The ministries of Social Affairs and Labour were merged: Rima al-Qadiri assumed responsibility for the combined portfolio. Among the other notable appointees were Adib Mayyaleh—hitherto Governor of the Central Bank of Syria—who joined the Government as Minister of Economy and Foreign Trade, and Maamoun Hamdan, who became Minister of Finance.

01 July 2016 Austria

The Verfassungsgerichtshof (Constitutional Court) unprecedentedly annulled the result of the presidential election held on 22 May, at which an independent candidate, Alexander Van der Bellen, narrowly secured the Austrian presidency with 50.3% of votes in the second round. His opponent, Norbert Hofer, of the right-wing, anti-immigration Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ—Freedom Party of Austria) secured 49.7%, losing by some 31,000 votes, with postal votes the deciding factor. Following the election, the FPÖ made formal complaints of irregularities in the counting of postal votes in a number of constituencies. The run-off election was scheduled to be re-run on 2 October, and in the mean time, at the end of President Heinz Fischer’s term of office on 8 July, the three Presidents of the Nationalrat (National Council), including Hofer, assumed the functions of the presidency on an interim basis.

30 June 2016 Philippines

Rodrigo Duterte, the former mayor of Davao City, was sworn in as President to serve a single six-year term. Duterte had won 39.0% of the votes cast at the elections held on 9 May as the candidate for Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (PDP-Laban), while his closest rival Mar Roxas of the Liberal Party (LP) won 23.5%. Duterte, who was regarded as a maverick, had run an outspoken campaign pledging to combat corruption and criminality, referring to his record for dramatically reducing crime in Davao City, although human rights groups alleged that many extrajudicial killings of suspected criminals had taken place under his administration. On the same day Duterte’s new Cabinet took their oaths and the LP’’s Leni Robredo was sworn in as Vice-President. PDP-Laban won only three seats in the legislative election to the House of Representatives, while the LP won 115, the Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC) 42, and the National Unity Party (NUP) and Nacionalista Party (NP) 23 each. However, Duterte soon gathered a large majority in the House of Representatives, through support for his newly created Coalition for Change, which included an enlarged PDP-Laban, (after many members of the LP switched to the party), the NPC, the NUP and NP, Lakas-CMD and various Party List Representatives.


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